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医学科普

癌症患者饮食

发表者:陈永 684人已读

前言:患上了癌症,患者及家属一定很紧张。到处寻求着治疗方式、也反复询问着饮食注意点。中国老百姓最常问的话就是:吃什么?有什么忌口的?

这个东西说来话长,我相信食疗的专家肯定可以出版一本相关的图书,繁文缛节。而且让你这也不能吃那也不能吃。显然,需要讲究的地方没有必要那么多。药物治疗癌症都没有研究透,何况食物呢?南方医科大学中西医结合医院风湿病科陈永南方医科大学中西医结合医院风湿病科陈永深圳市人民医院风湿免疫科陈永

选择上网查询一下是很好的方式,大量阅读,去伪存真。首先要丢弃广告、其次还是存在有些是对的,有些是错误的。所谓科学也需要你反复的推敲。科学只是当下的认识。比如说,过去认为是科学的,后来证实不科学呢?科学本身就是常常存在争议的焦点。

说老实话,贬低一下国内的科普文章,科学家都忙着发表文章沽名钓誉,哪有时间写科普呢?总体而言,欧美的科普文章质量优秀于国内的科普文章。

我将《癌症该怎么吃》的一篇科普文,翻译出来(部份根据专业知识改写),供您仔细参考。

How to Eat When You Have Cancer

ARTICLES ON LIVING WITH CANCER

What you eat is really important when you have cancer. Your body needs enough calories and nutrients to stay strong. But the disease can make it hard to get what you need, which can be different before, during, and after treatment. And sometimes, you just won’t feel like eating.

You don’t need a drastic diet makeover. Just a few simple tricks to make good-for-you foods easy and appetizing.

患癌症时,吃什么真的很重要。 您的身体需要足够的卡路里(能量/糖分)和营养来保持强健。 但是癌症常常会使您难以获得所需的营养(例如消化道肿瘤导致胃肠道的梗阻无法进食,或癌症导致食欲下降)。治疗之前,期间和之后饮食方案可能有所不同。有时,您只是不想吃东西。

您不需要饮食方面改头换面。只需几个简单的窍门即可轻松制作出适合您的食物。

Before Treatment

Start focusing on healthy foods even before you begin your treatment. You don't know how it will affect you or what kind of side effects you might have. That's why it's a good idea to get good nutrition now. It can help you feel better and your body stay strong.

It’s also a good time to plan for the days when you won’t feel like making anything to eat. Fill your fridge and pantry with healthy foods, especially those that need very little (or no) cooking. Nuts, applesauce, yogurt, pre-chopped veggies, and microwaveable brown rice or other whole grains are easy options. Make batches of some of your favorite entrees and freeze them, too.

You may also want to line up some friends and family who can bring you meals for the first days or weeks of your therapy.

治疗前——保证营养最重要!!

在开始癌症治疗之前,就开始着重于健康食品。 您不知道它癌症治疗如何影响您或可能会有什么样的副作用。所以在癌症治疗开始之前,也就是诊断癌症后即需要加强营养 它可以帮助您感觉更好并且身体保持强壮。

这也是规划您不想做任何事情的的好时机。 在冰箱和食品储藏室中放入健康的食物,尤其是那些需要很少(或不需要)烹饪的食物。 坚果,苹果酱,酸奶,切碎的蔬菜和微波炉糙米或其他全谷物都是很容易的选择。大量制作一些您喜欢的主菜并将其冻结备用

您可能还可以在治疗的头几天或几周通知能为您带来饭菜的朋友和家人。

During Treatment

You may have days when you feel hungry, and others when food is the last thing you want.

On good days, eat lots of protein and healthy calories. That will keep your body strong and help repair damage from your treatment.

High-protein foods include:

·Lean meat, chicken, and fish

·Eggs

·Beans, nuts, and seeds

·Cheese, milk, and yogurt

Try to eat at least 2 1/2 cups of fruits and vegetables a day. Include dark green and deep yellow veggies, and citrus fruits like oranges and grapefruits. Colorful foods like these have many healthy nutrients. Just be sure to wash them thoroughly.

Drink plenty of liquids all day. Water is a great choice. Try fresh-squeezed juice, too. It gives you some extra vitamins along with the liquid your body needs to stay hydrated.

It's also key that you don't eat raw or undercooked meat, fish, and poultry. Don't eat foods and beverages that are unpasteurized.

Eat when you're hungry. If that's in the morning, make breakfast your biggest meal. Drink meal replacements later if your appetite fades as the day goes on. If meals are a struggle, eat five or six small ones instead of two or three big ones during the day.

Have small, healthy snacks on hand, too. Yogurt, cereal, cheese and crackers, and soup are all good choices. If you’re having chemotherapy, a snack or small meal right before a session might keep nausea away.

治疗期间——注意抵抗食欲下降

因为治疗的关系,您可能有几天因为不允许吃东西饥饿,也可能有一阶段日子又不想吃饭(尤其是化疗的副作用)

在好日子里,吃很多蛋白质(鸡鱼肉蛋中富含蛋白质)和健康的卡路里。这将使您的身体保持强壮,并有助于修复治疗造成的损害。

l高蛋白食物包括:

l瘦肉,鸡肉和鱼肉

l鸡蛋

l豆类,坚果和种子

l奶酪,牛奶和酸奶

尝试每天至少吃2杯水果和蔬菜。包括深绿色和深黄色蔬菜,以及柑桔类水果,例如橙子和葡萄柚。这样的色彩鲜艳的食物具有许多健康的营养。只要确保彻底清洗它们即可。

喝大量液体。水是一个很好的选择。也尝试鲜榨果汁它为您提供了一些额外的维生素,以及您需要保持水分的液体。

不要吃生的或未煮熟的肉,鱼和家禽也是很关键的。不要吃未经消毒的食物和饮料。

饿了就吃。如果是在早晨,则使早餐成为最大的一餐。如果您的胃口随着一天的过去而消退,请稍后再喝些代餐饭。如果吃饭比较麻烦,则白天要少吃五到六个或六个或三个以上的大餐。

手上也要有健康的小点心。酸奶,谷物,奶酪和饼干以及汤都是不错的选择。如果您正在进行化学疗法,那么在会议开始前吃点零食或一顿小餐可能会使您感到恶心。

Manage Side Effects

处理治疗的副作用

Many side effects of cancer treatments can make it hard to get enough to eat. Your diet may help you get past some of the most common issues.

癌症治疗的许多副作用可能使人们难以进食。 饮食可以帮助您克服一些最常见的问题。

Nausea/vomiting: Avoid high-fat, greasy, or spicy foods, or those with strong smells. Eat dry foods like crackers or toast every few hours. Sip clear liquids like broths, sports drinks, and water.

恶心/呕吐:避免食用高脂,油腻或辛辣的食物,或气味强烈的食物。 每隔几个小时就吃些饼干或烤面包等干食品。 喝清汤,运动饮料和水等清澈的液体。

Mouth or throat problems: For sores, pain, or trouble swallowing, stick with soft foods. Avoid anything rough or scratchy, and spicy or acidic foods. Eat meals lukewarm (not hot or cold). And use a straw for soups or drinks.

口腔或咽喉问题:对于疮,痛或吞咽困难,请坚持使用柔软的食物。 避免任何粗糙或抓挠的食物,以及辛辣或酸性食物。 少食多餐(不冷不热)。 并用吸管喝汤或饮料。

Diarrhea and constipation: For diarrhea, it’s really important to stay hydrated. Drink lots of liquids, and cut back on high-fiber foods like whole grains and vegetables. If you’re constipated, slowly add more high-fiber foods to your diet. Plenty of liquids is key for this problem, too.

腹泻和便秘对于腹泻,保持水分很重要。多喝液体,减少全谷物和蔬菜等高纤维食物(仅在腹泻的时期) 如果您患有便秘,请在饮食中慢慢添加更多高纤维食物。 大量液体也是解决此问题的关键。

Change in taste: Treatment can have a funny effect on your taste buds. Things you didn't like before might taste good now. So be open to new foods. See if you like sour or tart flavors like ginger or pomegranates. Spices such as rosemary, mint, and oregano might help you enjoy other foods, too.

改变口味:治疗会对您的味蕾产生的影响。 您以前不喜欢的东西现在可能会很好吃。 所以要接受新食物。 看看您是否喜欢酸味或酸味,例如生姜或石榴。 迷迭香,薄荷和牛至等香料也可以帮助您享用其他食物。

'Cancer Diets'

Plenty of people tout "special" diets that they say will help treat cancer or keep it from coming back. Maybe you’ve heard that you should go vegan, vegetarian, or start a raw diet. Before you make any major changes, talk to your doctor.

There’s no diet that can cure cancer. There's also no good research that shows that any eating plan, like a vegetarian diet, for example, can lower the chance of cancer coming back.

Your best bet is to stick with a balanced diet with lean proteins, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy. Limit your sugar, caffeine, salt, and alcohol.

癌症饮食

很多人吹捧他们说的特殊饮食将有助于治疗癌症或阻止其复发。 也许您听说过应该素食主义者,素食主义者或开始节食。 在进行任何重大更改之前,请咨询您的医生。——我现在就告诉你,为了保持足够的营养,不建议改为素食。

没有可以治愈癌症的饮食。 也没有很好的研究表明任何饮食计划,例如素食,都可以降低癌症复发的机会。

最好的选择是坚持均衡饮食,包括瘦蛋白,水果,蔬菜,全谷物和低脂乳制品。 限制您的糖,咖啡因,盐和酒精。

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD on November 11, 2018

陈永医师备注:

1. 也不要吃的太胖哦,很多癌症与肥胖相关,证据确凿。

2. 包括癌症治疗,化疗副作用,常常需要借助药物、运动等综合的方法。

3. 果醋等弱碱性食物对抗癌肯定是有效的,虽然备受争议,本人表示支持。

4. 保证充足的营养很重要,中国人关注的忌口,不必矫枉过正。

甘草养阴含片(甘草人参含片):由复旦大学内科学博士陈永医生(Dr. Yong Chen)及其科研团队,在复旦大学及南方医科大学科研单位的支持下,历经数年研发而成。

本品是根据名医张仲景的古方《甘草泻心汤》基础上改良而成,配伍均属于国家规定的药食同源目录,并符合中药原则,阴阳调和。在原材料甘草、罗汉果、蒲公英等地道药材基础上通过现代工艺提炼而成,有效成分提取充分;含有人参皂苷、咖啡酸、6-姜辣素、玉竹多糖、三萜甙类、生物碱类、黄酮类、糖类、维生素类、甘草苷、甘草酸、齐墩果酸、白桦脂酸等百余种活性成分。更符合现代生活环境及现代人体质,服用方便。

通过大量的研究和测试数据表明:短期服用本品能快速消除胃肠道各类炎症,调理胃肠功能润肠通便;对白塞病(口腔、消化道溃疡)能有效缓解;并能提高睡眠质量,减少因失眠所带来的痛苦。长期服用能改善新陈代谢功能、激活细胞的单磷酸腺苷蛋白激酶(AMPK),达到软化血管有效地预防心脑血管疾病的功效;调节身体的阴阳平衡,抑制各类炎症、肿瘤的发生,是防癌抗癌,延缓衰老的佳品!推测辅助人群寿命120岁。

本文是陈永医生版权所有,未经授权请勿转载。

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发表于:2020-07-12 00:02

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陈永的咨询范围: 免疫风湿科:痛风、系统性红斑狼疮、强直性脊柱炎、干燥综合征、白塞病、类风湿关节炎、回纹风湿病、纤维肌痛、膝关节炎、颈椎病、腰椎病。 Immunology and rheumatology: gout, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, Sjogren's syndrome, Behcet's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, knee arthritis, cervical spondylosis, lumbar spondylosis.,内科常见疾病:心血管科:高血压、肺动脉高压、冠心病、动脉硬化。消化科:复发性口腔溃疡、胃炎、胃溃疡、十二指肠溃疡、胃食管反流病、慢性结肠炎、炎性肠病、肠易激综合症、脂肪肝、肝炎、糖尿病。呼吸科:哮喘、咳嗽、间质性肺病。肿瘤科:恶性肿瘤,以整合医学康复为主。内分泌科:糖尿病。 Common internal diseases: cardiovascular: hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis. Department of Gastroenterology: recurrent oral ulcer, gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux disease, chronic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, fatty liver, hepatitis, diabetes. Respiratory: asthma, cough, interstitial lung disease. Oncology: malignant tumors, mainly based on integrated medical rehabilitation. Endocrinology: Diabetes.,其他:皮肤科:荨麻疹、湿疹、银屑病、过敏性皮炎、日光性皮炎、皮肤瘙痒症。五官科:神经性耳聋、过敏性鼻炎、酒渣鼻、慢性咽炎、中耳炎。神经精神科:头痛、中风后遗症、外周神经损伤、喉返神经损伤。妇科:盆腔炎、痛经、子宫肌瘤、卵巢早衰、不孕症。 Other: Dermatology: urticaria, eczema, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, solar dermatitis, pruritus. ENT: neurological deafness, allergic rhinitis, rosacea, chronic pharyngitis, otitis media. Neuropsychiatry: headache, stroke sequelae, peripheral nerve injury, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Gynecology: pelvic inflammatory disease, dysmenorrhea, uterine fibroids, premature ovarian failure, infertility. 更多>>

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