Use of adjunctive medications in the stable phase Other psychoactive medications are commonly added to antipsychotic medications in the stable phase to treat comorbid conditions, aggression, anxiety, or other mood symptoms; to augment the antipsychotic effects of the primary drug; and to treat side effects. Other medications that may address treatment-resistant Special Issues in Caring for Patients With Treatment-Resistant Illness.”Adjunctive medications are commonly prescribed for comorbid conditions. For example, major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder are common comorbid conditions in patients with schizophrenia and may respond to antidepressant medications . However,some antidepressants (those that inhibit catecholamine reuptake) can potentially sustain or exacerbate psychotic symptoms in some patients .Benzodiazepines may be helpful for managing anxiety during the stable phase of treatment although risk of dependence and abuse exists with chronic use of this class of medication. There is some evidence that mood stabilizers and beta-blockers may be effective in reducing the severity of recurrent hostility and aggression. Mood stabilizers may also address prominent mood lability. As mentioned previously, attention must be given to potential drug interactions, especially related to metabolism by the cytochrome P450 enzymes .Patients treated with first-generation antipsychotics may require the long-term use of medications for treatment of extrapyramidal side effects (Table 5). Although the study findings arenot consistent, there is some evidence that vitamin E may reduce the risk of development of tardive dyskinesia . Given the low risk of side effects associated with vitamin E, patients may be advised to take 400–800 I.U. daily as prophylaxis.Many other medications may be used to treat or reduce the risk of various antipsychotic side effects.